The Applied Biology & Chemistry Journal (TABCJ)

ISSN: 2582-8789 (online)

COVID-19 pandemic: potential phase III vaccines in development

Priya Saini

IQVIA, Omega Block, Outer Ring Road, Embassy Tech Square, Bengaluru - 560103, Karnataka, India

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6316-2929

Published

15 September 2020

Abstract

By the end of the year 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in China. With the passage of more than half of the year 2020, the virus has spread worldwide, making it the worst pandemic of our lifetime. The spread of the virus is controlled by imposing lockdown, which has led to severe economic slowdown around the globe. Coronaviruses are zoonotic as they spread from animals to humans. Factors such as rapid urbanization and poultry farming have permitted inter-mixing of species leading to crossing barriers and spreading of viruses to humans. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is acute in most people, but it may progress to severe respiratory distress, especially in people with weak innate immunity leading to death. It is a contagious infection with the death toll mounting to above seven lakhs in the world, so there is an urgent need to find the vaccine to cure the virus, as there is no licensed drug or vaccine available. Global collaborations and increased research efforts among the scientific community have led to more than 150 clinical trials globally. This review discusses the SARS-CoV-2 replication mechanism and potential vaccine candidates in phase III COVID-19 clinical trials. Measures adopted to accomplish the fast pace of the COVID-19 trials are highlighted with an update on possible new drug targets or strategies to fight off the virus.

Keywords

coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome; vaccines

Cite this article

Saini P (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: potential phase III vaccines in development. T. Appl. Biol. Chem. J; 1(1):21-33. https://doi.org/10.52679/tabcj.2020.0004

Citation: 5

References

[1] World Health Organization coronavirus disease (COVID-19) dashboard (2020). https://covid19.who.int/ (accessed 2 August 2020).

[2] Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (2020). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen (accessed 2 August 2020).

[3] Rabi FA, Al Zoubi MS, Kasasbeh GA, Salameh DM, Al-Nasser AD (2020). SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease 2019: what we know so far. Pathogens; 9(3):231. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030231

[4] Singhal T (2020). A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) Indian J Pediatr; 87(4):281–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6

[5] van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, et al (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med; 382:1564–1567. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2004973

[6] Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions (2020). https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/transmission-of-sars-cov-2-implications-for-infection-prevention-precautions (accessed 3 August 2020).

[7] Kandimalla R, John A, Abburi C, Vallamkondu J, Reddy PH (2020). Current status of multiple drug molecules and vaccines: an update in SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics. Mol Neurobiol; 57:4106–4116. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02022-0

[8] Vellingiri B, Jayaramayya K, Iyer M, et al (2020). COVID-19: a promising cure for the global panic. Sci Total Environ; 725:138277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138277

[9] Li H, Zhou Y, Zhang M, et al (2020). Updated approaches against SARS-CoV-2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 64:e00483-20. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00483-20

[10] Sette A, Crotty S (2020). Pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2: the knowns and unknowns. Nat Rev Immunol; 20:457–458. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0389-z

[11] Vyas J, Kadam A, Mashru R (2020). The role of herd immunity in control of contagious diseases. Int J Res Rev; 7:12.

[12] Fabricant J (1998). The early history of infectious bronchitis. Avian Dis; 42(4):648–650.

[13] Kahn JS, McIntosh K (2005). History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery. Pediatr Infect Dis J; 24(11):S223–S227. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000188166.17324.60

[14] Malik YS, Sircar S, Bhat S, et al (2020). Emerging novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-current scenario, evolutionary perspective based on genome analysis and recent developments. Vet Q; 40(1):68–76. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2020.1727993

[15] Human Coronavirus Types (2020). https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/types.html (accessed 3 August 2020).

[16] Rabaan AA, Al-Ahmed SH, Haque S, et al (2020). SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV: a comparative overview. Infez Med; 28(2):174–184.

[17] Song Z, Xu Y, Bao L, et al (2019). From SARS to MERS, thrusting coronavirus into the spotlight. Viruses; 11(1):59. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010059

[18] Zhou P, Yang XL, Wang XG, et al (2020). A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature; 579(7798):270-273. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7

[19] Lam TT, Jia N, Zhang YW, et al (2020). Identifying SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins. Nature; 583(7815):282-285. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

[20] Tang X, Wu C, Li X, et al (2020). On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Natl Sci Rev; 7(6):1012–1023. https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwaa036

[21] Martin YH; How do SARS and MERS compare with COVID-19? (2020). https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/how-do-sars-and-mers-compare-with-covid-19 (accessed 14 July 2020).

[22] Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, et al (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet; 395(10224):565-574. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8

[23] Andersen KG, Rambaut A, Lipkin WI, et al (2020). The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nat Med; 26:450–452. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0820-9

[24] COVID-19, MERS AND SARS (2020). https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/covid-19 (accessed 28 June 2020).

[25] Cui J, Li F, Shi Z (2019). Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol; 17:181–192. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-018-0118-9

[26] Hu B, Huang S, Yin L (2020). The cytokine storm and COVID-19. J Med Virol; 2020:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26232

[27] Zumla A, Chan JF, Azhar EI, Hui DS, Yuen KY (2016). Coronaviruses - drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nat Rev Drug Discov; 15(5):327-347. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd.2015.37

[28] Shang J, Ye G, Shi K, et al (2020). Structural basis of receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2. Nature; 581:221–224. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2179-y

[29] Yan R, Zhang Y, Li Y, Xia L, Guo Y, Zhou Q (2020). Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2. Science; 367(6485):1444-1448. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb2762

[30] Zheng J (2020). SARS-CoV-2: an emerging coronavirus that causes a global threat. Int J Biol Sci; 16(10):1678-1685. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45053

[31] Li F (2016). Structure, function, and evolution of coronavirus spike proteins. Annu Rev Virol; 3(1):237-261. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-110615-042301

[32] Ding S, Liang TJ (2020). Is SARS-CoV-2 also an enteric pathogen with potential fecal–oral transmission? A COVID-19 virological and clinical review. Gastroenterology; 159(1):53-61. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.052

[33] Chan JF, Kok KH, Zhu Z, et al (2020). Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerging Microbes Infections; 9(1):221-236. https://doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902

[34] Coutard B, Valle C, de Lamballerie X, Canard B, Seidah NG, Decroly E (2020). The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade. Antiviral Res; 176:104742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104742

[35] Shang J, Wan Y, Luo C, Ye G, Geng Q, Auerbach A, Li F (2020). Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci; 117(21):11727–11734. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003138117

[36] Romano M, Ruggiero A, Squeglia F, Maga G, Berisio R (2020). A structural view of SARS-CoV-2 RNA replication machinery: RNA synthesis, proofreading and final capping. Cells; 9(5):1267. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051267

[37] Chen Y, Liu Q, Guo D (2020). Emerging coronaviruses: genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. J Med Virol; 92(4):418–423. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25681

[38] Kim Y, Jedrzejczak R, Maltseva NI, et al (2020). Crystal structure of Nsp15 endoribonuclease NendoU from SARS-CoV-2. Protein Sci; 29(7):1596–1605. https://doi.org/10.1002/pro.3873

[39] Astuti I, Ysrafil (2020). Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): an overview of viral structure and host response. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev; 14(4):407–412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.020

[40] Prajapat M, Sarma P, Shekhar N, Avti P, Sinha S, Kaur H, et al (2020). Drug targets for corona virus: a systematic review. Indian J Pharmacol; 52(1):56-65. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijp.IJP_115_20

[41] Sanjuán R, Domingo-Calap P (2016). Mechanisms of viral mutation. Cell Mol Life Sci; 73(23):4433–4448. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-016-2299-6

[42] Lurie N, Saville M, Hatchett R, Halton J (2020). Developing Covid-19 vaccines at pandemic speed. N Engl J Med; 382:1969–1973. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2005630

[43] Solidarity clinical trial for COVID-19 treatments (2020). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/solidarity-clinical-trial-for-covid-19-treatments (accessed 15 August 2020).

[44] Hung IFN, Lung KC, Tso EYK, et al (2020). Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir-ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet; 395:1695–1704. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31042-4

[45] Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M et al (2020). Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res; 30: 269–271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0

[46] Jin Z, Du X, Xu Y, Deng Y, Liu M, Zhao Y et al (2020). Structure of Mpro from SARS-CoV-2 and discovery of its inhibitors. Nature; 582: 289–293. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2223-y

[47] Choy KT, Wong AYL, Kaewpreedee P, Sia SF, Chen D, Hui KPY et al (2020). Remdesivir, lopinavir, emetine, and homoharringtonine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Antiviral Res; 178: 104786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104786

[48] Trivedi A, Sharma S, Ashtey B (2020). Investigational treatments for COVID-19. Pharm J; 304:312–313.

[49] The RECOVERY Collaborative Group (2020). Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19 - preliminary report. N Engl J Med; 2020:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2021436

[50] Mukim M, Kabra A, Devi S, Chaturvedi M, Patel R (2020). Global pandemic conditions and list of possible medications and vaccines for the treatment of COVID-19: a review. Borneo J Pharm; 3, 90–102.

[51] Schlagenhauf P, Grobusch MP, Maier JD, Gautret P (2020). Repurposing antimalarials and other drugs for COVID-19. Travel Med Infect Dis; 34: 101658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101658

[52] Step 3 (2020). https://www.fda.gov/patients/drug-development-process/step-3-clinical-research (accessed 4 September 2020).

[53] Compton K; FDA Clinical Trials (2020). https://www.drugwatch.com/fda/clinical-trials/ (accessed 15 July 2020).

[54] Heaton PM (2020). The Covid-19 vaccine-development multiverse. N Engl J Med; 383:1986-1988. https://www.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2025111

[55] Accelerating a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine (2020). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/global-research-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/accelerating-a-safe-and-effective-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 5 July 2020).

[56] More than 150 countries engaged in COVID-19 vaccine global access facility (2020). https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/15-07-2020-more-than-150-countries-engaged-in-covid-19-vaccine-global-access-facility (accessed 20 July 2020).

[57] The Lancet (2020). Global governance for COVID-19 vaccines. Lancet; 395(10241):1883.

[58] Craven J. COVID-19 vaccine tracker (2020). https://www.raps.org/news-and-articles/news-articles/2020/3/covid-19-vaccine-tracker (accessed 4 August 2020).

[59] Carlson R; AZD1222 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (2020). https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/azd1222-sars-cov-2-vaccine (accessed 25 July 2020).

[60] Bureau M; Moderna vaccine mRNA-1273 shows early promise in human trial (2020). https://medicaldialogues.in/news/industry/pharma/moderna-vaccine-mrna-1273-shows-early-promise-in-human-trial-65896 (accessed 25 July 2020).

[61] Carnahan R, Mishra S; Coronavirus (2020). http://theconversation.com/coronavirus-a-new-type-of-vaccine-using-rna-could-help-defeat-covid-19-133217 (accessed 30 July 2020).

[62] Moderna and Catalent announce collaboration for fill-finish manufacturing of Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate (2020). https://www.catalent.com/catalent-news/moderna-and-catalent-announce-collaboration-for-fill-finish-manufacturing-of-modernas-covid-19-vaccine-candidate/ (accessed 4 August 2020).

[63] CoronaVac SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (2020). https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/coronavac-sars-cov-2-vaccine (accessed 9 August 2020).

[64] BNT162 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (2020). https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/bnt162-sars-cov-2-vaccine (accessed 8 August 2020).

[65] New Crown COVID-19 Vaccine (2020). https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/new-crown-covid-19-vaccine (accessed 9 August 2020).

[66] Covid-19 vaccine tracker (2020). https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/covid-19-vaccine-tracker-updates-august-11-6549613/ (accessed 11 August 2020).

[67] Rajalakshmi N; Russia’s ‘Sputnik V’ vaccine treads uncharted territory, and could backfire (2020). https://science.thewire.in/health/covid-19-sputnik-v-vaccine-russia-rdif-adenovirus-vector-phase-3/ (accessed 4 September 2020).

[68] Logunov DY, Dolzhikova IV, Zubkova OV, Tukhvatullin AI, Shcheblyakov DV, Dzharullaeva AS, et al (2020). Safety and immunogenicity of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine in two formulations: two open, non-randomised phase 1/2 studies from Russia. Lancet; 396(10255):887-897. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31866-3

[69] Ray M; Coronavirus vaccine update (2020). https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health-news/coronavirus-vaccine-update-indias-second-covid-19-vaccine-candidate-zycov-d-to-start-human-trials-here-is-all-you-need-to-know/photostory/76977870.cms (accessed 25 July 2020).

[70] ICMR wants to launch Covaxin by August 15: What you need to know about India’s vaccine (2020). https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-icmr-claims-it-wants-to-launch-covaxin-by-august-15-heres-what-you-need-to-know-6488296/ (accessed 6 September 2020).

[71] India approves second Covid-19 vaccine for clinical trials (2020). https://www.clinicaltrialsarena.com/news/india-trials-second-covid19-vaccine/ (accessed 5 August 2020).

[72] Coronavirus vaccine development in India (2020). https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health-news/coronavirus-vaccine-development-in-india-heres-a-list-of-all-vaccines-being-locally-made-and-developed/photostory/77064624.cms (accessed 4 August 2020).

[73] Steinman L (2020). A sugar-coated strategy to treat a rare neurologic disease provides a blueprint for a decoy glycan therapeutic and a potential vaccine for CoViD-19: an editorial highlight for "Selective inhibition of anti-MAG IgM autoantibody binding to myelin by an antigen specific glycopolymer" on page 486. J Neurochem; 154(5):1-3.

[74] Shajahan A, Supekar NT, Gleinich AS, Azadi P (2020). Deducing the N- and O-glycosylation profile of the spike protein of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Glycobiology; cwaa042. https://www.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwaa042

[75] Rejdak K, Grieb P (2020). Adamantanes might be protective from COVID-19 in patients with neurological diseases: multiple sclerosis, parkinsonism and cognitive impairment. Mult Scler Relat Disord; 42: 102163.

[76] Araújo R, Aranda-Martínez JD, Aranda-Abreu GE (2020). Amantadine treatment for people with COVID-19. Arch Med Res; https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.06.009

[77] Smieszek SP, Przychodzen BP, Polymeropoulos MH (2020). Amantadine disrupts lysosomal gene expression: A hypothesis for COVID19 treatment. Int J Antimicrob Agents; 55(6):106004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106004

[78] Shin D, Mukherjee R, Grewe D, Bojkova D, Baek K, Bhattacharya A, et al (2020). Papain-like protease regulates SARS-CoV-2 viral spread and innate immunity. Nature; 587:657-662. https://www.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2601-5



Rights & Permissions

Copyright: © 2020 Priya Saini. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.