Review | Published: 26 June 2021
Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome and albumin-bound paclitaxel in cancer: a nanotechnology perspective
Rajib Hossain, Rasel Ahmad Khan, Muhammad Torequl Islam, Divya Jain, Pracheta Janmeda, Obinna Chukwuemeka Godfrey*, Shiwali Bisht & Aakanksha Bharati
cancer; chemotherapeutics; drug delivery; nanoparticle; nanoparticle formulation; nanotechnology
Nanoparticle formulation methods
Table 1. Preparation of nanoparticles using different types of polymers .
Characterization of nanoparticles
Lipid-based nanoparticles are helpful in RNA release in chemotherapy and drug carrier and delivery [29, 33]. Their success in the biomedical field is mainly due to their fascinating physical and chemical properties, which includes high bioavailability, easy administration via several routes, large-scale production, inherent ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, and the ability to implement macromolecules like DNA, proteins, oligosaccharides  as well as having potentials in decreased side effects and drug susceptibility to metabolism .
The concept of nano-drug targeting lies in the controlled biodistribution, especially of the intravascular administration, which involves the opsonization of the carriers [44, 45], meaning that the carriers are covered with protein molecules and recognized by the liver and spleen macrophages . Thus, enhancing the targeting and the experimental treatment of pathogens such as hepatic metastasizes as well as leading to a substantial decrease of drug levels in unfavorable areas, thereby attenuating the toxic reactions of certain anti-cancer medications . In tumor targeting, a tumor could be benign (non-cancerous), malignant (cancerous), may contain fluid or solid, and usually, treating it with traditional chemotherapy comes with serious side effects .
In passive amplification, the circulation time directly influences the success of the drug . There are many approved passive tumor targeting delivery system as listed in table 2. This is achieved by wrapping the nanoparticles with nanomaterials such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), making the nanoparticle surface hydrophilic, therefore allowing the interaction of water molecules via hydrogen bonding interaction, oxygen is bonded to the PEG. The result of this is that an antiphagocytic substance is created. Sagnella and Gullotti, independently, identified that nanoparticles with sizes between 10 - 100 nanometers are found to circulate systematically for more prolonged periods [47, 48].
Table 2. List of approved passive tumor targeting delivery system.
Passive targeting is all about using the typical dissemination pattern for the formulated drug delivery system; this is based on the drug accumulation around the tumors with leaky vasculature referred to as Enhanced Permeation and Retention (EPR) effect . Active targeting, on the other hand, involves specific ligand-receptor type interaction. It is usually employed in the improvement of target cell signalling and target cell uptake. According to Golombek, the most common technique is ligand-mediated targeting, which uses ligands produced toward the receptor molecules or immunogenic predictors released on cancer cells or the vascular system as mentioned in table 3 . Since they do not rely on extravasation and penetration through pericyte, smooth muscle cells, and/or fibroblast-based cell layers, endothelial cell-targeted nanomedicines have a much higher potential for enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy.
Table 3. Ligands for active nanoparticle targeted drug delivery.
In summary, nanotechnology and the production of chemotherapeutic treatment should be of immense focus in the coming era. The quest for novel cancer drugs, their destinations, ligand-binding mechanisms, and molecular stability would enhance the chance to improve chemotherapeutic administration with minimal or no damage to normal tissues. This topic focused on two chemotherapeutic agents developed by nanotechnology to treat certain cancer diseases proven effective in cancer management. They get to the target cancer or tumor cells with minimal interference by the system, hence, exerting minimal damage to normal cells.
The authors acknowledge to the International Centre for Empirical Research and Development (ICERD), Department of Pharmacy, Life Science Faculty, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Bioinformatics Centre, Banasthali Vidyapith supported by DBT and DST for providing computation and networking support through the FIST and CURIE programs at the Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan, India. A special thanks to Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Nigeria.
No potential conflict of interest is being reported by the author.
Rajib Hossain & Muhammad Torequl Islam
Department of Pharmacy, Life Science Faculty, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Rasel Ahmed Khan
Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna-9280, Khulna, Bangladesh
Divya Jain & Pracheta Janmeda
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan-304022, India
Obinna Chukwuemeka Godfrey
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar-540271, Cross River, Nigeria
Aarogyam Medical College and Hospital, Bhagwanpur, Dehradun- 247661, Uttarakhand, India
Department of Environmental Sciences, Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226025, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Obinna Chukwuemeka Godfrey
Cite this article
Hossain R, Khan RA, Islam MT, Jain D, Janmeda P, Godfrey OC, Bisht S, Bharati A (2021). A review on doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome and albumin-bound Paclitaxel chemotherapy with respect to nanotechnology. T. Appl. Biol. Chem. J; 2(2):59-65. https://doi.org/10.52679/tabcj.2021.0010
Received Revised Accepted Published
25 April 2021 13 June 2021 17 June 2021 27 June 2021