The Applied Biology & Chemistry Journal (TABCJ)

ISSN: 2582-8789 (online)

Home / Archives / Volume 2 Issue 3 (2021) / Original Research

Characterization of innately decellularised micropattern pseudostem of Musa balbisiana - A non-surface functionalized 3D economic biomaterial scaffold

Deepa Narayanan*, Sarita G Bhat & Gaurav Baranwal

Deepa Narayanan*

Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Ernakulum-682022, Kerala, India

Sarita G Bhat

Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Ernakulum-682022, Kerala, India

Gaurav Baranwal

Department of Medicla Physiology, College of Medicine, Texas A & M University, 2403(C) Bryan, TX 77807, USA

Published

30 September 2021

Abstract

Banana (Musa balbisiana) pseudostem 3D scaffolds have been developed here for primary eukaryotic cell and cell line culture as an economical, sustainable, eco-friendly alternative for surface-functionalized polymeric and plant tissue-based structures. Musa pseudostem 3D micro pattern scaffold (MPM-3Ds) developed by freeze-drying followed by ethylene oxide sterilization yielded 5.6ng of DNA per mg of tissue, confirming its extended decellularised state. Thermogravimetric analysis, contact angle measurement, uniaxial testing, and FTIR determined thermal stability, wettability, tensile strength, and surface functional groups respectively. Micro and macronutrients, sugars, and amino acids that naturally enrich MPM-3Ds were estimated using EDAX, HPLC, and biochemical analysis. The most important finding was, non-surface functionalized MPM-3Ds supported attachment, growth, and differentiation of human mesenchyme stem cells, human primary hepatocytes like cells, primary mouse brain cortical neurons, mouse fibroblast cells, and human pancreatic cancer cells. MPM-3Ds showed in vivo biodegradation and biocompatibility in a preliminary analysis in Sprague Dawley rats. These findings illuminate nature's power to nurture cells in the micropattern cradles of MPM- 3Ds that can support innovative research in stem cell differentiation, drug and cosmetic testing, and biosensor development leading to advanced biomedical research.

Keywords

3D micropattern scaffold; banana pseudostem scaffold; economical 3D scaffold; hepatocyte cell spheroids; natural cellulosic 3D scaffold

Cite this article

Narayanan D, Bhat SG, Baranwal G (2021). Characterization of innately decellularised micropattern pseudostem of Musa balbisiana - A non-surface functionalized 3D economic biomaterial scaffold. T. Appl. Biol. Chem. J; 2(3):76-88. https://doi.org/10.52679/tabcj.2021.0013

References

[1] Li CY, Stevens KR, Schwartz RE, Alejandro BS, Huang JH, Bhatia SN (2014). Micropatterned cell-cell interactions enable functional encapsulation of primary hepatocytes in hydrogel microtissues. Tissue Eng Part A; 20(15-16):2200-12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[2] Sarkar S, Lee GY, Wong JY, Desai TA (2006). Development and characterization of a porous micro-patterned scaffold for vascular tissue engineering applications. Biomaterials; 27(27):4775-82. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[3] Khoruzhenko AI (2011). 2D- and 3D-cell culture. Biopolym Cell; 27(1):17-24. [CrossRef]

[4] Edmondson R, Broglie JJ, Adcock AF, Yang L (2014). Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Systems and Their Applications in Drug Discovery and Cell-Based Biosensors. Assay Drug Dev Technol; 12(4):207-18. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[5] Park HJ, Lee OJ, Lee MC, Moon BM, Ju HW, et al (2015). Fabrication of 3D porous silk scaffolds by particulate (salt/sucrose) leaching for bone tissue reconstruction. Int J Biol Macromol; 78:215-23. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[6] Deglincerti A, Etoc F, Guerra MC, Martyn I, Metzger J, Ruzo A, et al (2016). Self-organization of human embryonic stem cells on micropatterns. Nat Protoc; 11(11):2223-2232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[7] Benton G, Arnaoutova I, George J, Kleinman HK, Koblinski J (2014). Matrigel: from discovery and ECM mimicry to assays and models for cancer research. Adv Drug Deliv Rev; 79-80:3–18. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[8] Brown JM, Giaccia AJ (1998). The unique physiology of solid tumors: opportunities (and problems) for cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 58(7):1408–16. [PubMed]

[9] Pan T, Song W, Cao X, Wang Y (2016). 3D Bioplotting of Gelatin/Alginate Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering: Influence of Crosslinking Degree and Pore Architecture on Physicochemical Properties. J Mater Sci Technol; 32(9):889-900. [CrossRef]

[10] Markets and Markets (2019). 3D Cell Culture Market by Product (Hydrogel, Hanging Drop, Bioreactor, Microfluidics, Magnetic Levitation), Application (Cancer, Stem Cell, Toxicology, Tissue Engineering), End User (Pharmaceutical, Biotech, Cosmetics), Region - Global Forecast to 2024. https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/3d-cell-culture-market-191072847.html (accessed on September 12, 2019).

[11] Srivastava RK (2017). Electrospinning of patterned and 3D nanofibers. In: Electrospun Nanofibers. Woodhead Publishing, India. [CrossRef]

[12] Chung TW, Yang J, Akaike T, Cho KY, Nah JW, et al (2002). Preparation of alginate/galactosylated chitosan scaffold for hepatocyte attachment. Biomaterials; 23(14):2827–34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[13] Modulevsky DJ, Lefebvre C, Haase K, Al-Rekabi Z, Pelling AE (2014). Apple derived cellulose scaffolds for 3D mammalian cell culture. PLoS One; 9(5):e97835. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[14] Robbins ER, Pins GD, Laflamme MA, Gaudette GR (2020). Creation of a contractile biomaterial from a decellularized spinach leaf without ECM protein coating: An in vitro study. J Biomed Mater Res A; 108(10):2123-2132. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[15] Phirke NV, Patil RP, Chincholkar SB, Kothari RM (2001). Recycling of banana pseudostem waste for economical production of quality banana. Resour Conserv Recycl; 31(4):347–53. [CrossRef]

[16] Mukundan S, Narayanankutty A (2017). Traditional Fruits of Kerala: Bioactive Compounds and their Curative Potential in Chronic Diseases. Curr Nutr Food Sci; 13(4):279-289. [CrossRef]

[17] Kumar BM (2005). Land use in Kerala: changing scenarios and shifting paradigms. J Trop Agric; 43(1-2):1-12.

[18] Rajasekharan P, Veeraputhran S (2002). Adoption of intercropping in rubber smallholdings in Kerala, India: A Tobit analysis. Agrofor Syst; 56:1-11. [CrossRef]

[19] Joseph S, Sreekala MS, Oommen Z, Koshy P, Thomas S (2002). A comparison of the mechanical properties of phenol formaldehyde composites reinforced with banana fibres and glass fibres. Compos Sci Technol; 62(14):1857–68. [CrossRef]

[20] Rao KMM, Rao KM, Prasad AVR (2010). Fabrication and testing of natural fibre composites: Vakka, sisal, bamboo and banana. Mater Des; 31(1):508–13. [CrossRef]

[21] Preethi P, Balakrishna MG (2013). Physical and Chemical Properties of Banana Fibre Extracted from Commercial Banana Cultivars Grown in Tamilnadu State. Agrotechnology; S11:008. [CrossRef]

[22] Ortega Z, Morón M, Monzón MD, Badalló P, Paz R (2016). Production of banana fiber yarns for technical textile reinforced composites. Materials (Basel); 9(5):370. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[23] Patra AK, Meena LN (2013). Banana fibre in textiles. Asian Dyer;10(6):55–59.

[24] Sinha MK (1974). Rope-making with banana-plant fibre. J Textile Institute; 65(11):612–615. [CrossRef]

[25] Vigneswaran C, Pavithra V, Gayathri V, Mythili K (2015). Banana Fiber: Scope and Value Added Product Development. J Text Appar Technol Managem; 9(2):1-7.

[26] Sumita Y, Honda MJ, Ohara T, Tsuchiya S, Sagara H, Kagami H, et al (2006). Performance of collagen sponge as a 3-D scaffold for tooth-tissue engineering. Biomaterials; 27(17):3238-48. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[27] Nugraha B (2017). CelluSpongeTM and Go Matrix as innovative three-dimensional cell culture platforms. In Przyborski S (Ed.); Technology Platforms for 3D Cell Culture: A User’s Guide. John Wiley& Sons.

[28] Cornelissen CG, Dietrich M, Gromann K, Frese J, Krueger S, et al (2013). Fibronectin coating of oxygenator membranes enhances endothelial cell attachment. Biomed Eng Online; 12:7. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[29] Pereira ALS, do Nascimento DM, Souza M de SM, Cassales AR, Saraiva Morais JP, et al (2014). Banana (Musa sp. cv. Pacovan) pseudostem fibers are composed of varying lignocellulosic composition throughout the diameter. BioResources; 9(4):7749–63.

[30] Shantha HS, Siddappa GS (1970). Accumulation of Starch in Banana Pseudostem and Fruit. J Food Sci; 35(1):74–77. [CrossRef]

[31] Shantha HS, Siddappa GS (1970). Physicochemical nature of banana pseudostem starch. J Food Sci; 35(1)72-74. [CrossRef]

[32] Emaga TH, Robert C, Ronkart SN, Wathelet B, Paquot M (2008). Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties. Bioresour Technol; 99(10):4346–54. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[33] Kaviya S, Santhanalakshmi J, Viswanathan B, Muthumary J, Srinivasan K (2011). Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 79(3):594–598. [CrossRef]

[34] Jayaprabha JS, Brahmakumar M, Manilal VB (2011). Banana Pseudostem Characterization and Its Fiber Property Evaluation on Physical and Bioextraction. J Nat Fibers; 8(3):149–160. [CrossRef]

[35] Sakthivel M, Ramesh S (2013). Mechanical Properties of Natural Fibre (Banana, Coir, Sisal) Polymer Composites. Sci Park; 1(1):1-6.

[36] Dhivya S, Keshav Narayan A, Logith Kumar R, Viji Chandran S, Vairamani M, Selvamurugan N (2018). Proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on scaffolds containing chitosan, calcium polyphosphate and pigeonite for bone tissue engineering. Cell Prolif; 51(1):e12408. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[37] Timung R, Deshavath NN, Goud VV, Dasu VV (2016). Effect of Subsequent Dilute Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis on Reducing Sugar Production from Sugarcane Bagasse and Spent Citronella Biomass. J Energy; 2016:8506214. [CrossRef]

[38] Christopher M, Anusree M, Mathew AK, Nampoothiri KM, Sukumaran RK, Pandey A (2016). Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid. Bioresour Technol; 213:270-275. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[39] Baharvand H, Hashemi SM, Ashtiani SK, Farrokhi A (2006). Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatocytes in 2D and 3D culture systems in vitro. Int J Dev Biol; 50(7):645-52. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[40] Zeilinger K, Freyer N, Damm G, Seehofer D, Knöspel F (2016). Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 241(15):1684-98. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[41] Lee KD, Kuo TKC, Whang-Peng J, Chung YF, Lin CT, Chou SH, et al (2004). In vitro hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Hepatology; 40(6):1275-84. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[42] Gilbert TW, Freund JM, Badylak SF (2009). Quantification of DNA in Biologic Scaffold Materials. J Surg Res; 152(1):135-9. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[43] Adamski M, Fontana G, Gershlak JR, Gaudette GR, Le HD, Murphy WL (2018). Two methods for decellularization of plant tissues for tissue engineering applications. J Vis Exp; 135:57586. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[44] Maitra A, Murakata LA, Albores-Saavedra J (2001). Immunoreactivity for hepatocyte paraffin 1 antibody in hepatoid adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Clin Pathol; 115(5):689-94. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[45] Seefeld K, Linder E (2007). Statistics Using R with Biological Examples. CRAN-R Project: https://cran.r-project.org/doc/contrib/Seefeld_StatsRBio.pdf

[46] Wang L, Sun B, Ziemer KS, Barabino GA, Carrier RL (2010). Chemical and physical modifications to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces affect adhesion of Caco-2 cells. J Biomed Mater Res A; 93(4):1260-71. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[47] Gharibzahedi SMT, Jafari SM (2017). The importance of minerals in human nutrition: Bioavailability, food fortification, processing effects and nanoencapsulation. Trends Food Sci Technol; 62:119-132. [CrossRef]

[48] Tharmalingam S, Daulat AM, Antflick JE, Ahmed SM, Nemeth EF, Angers S, et al (2011). Calcium-sensing receptor modulates cell adhesion and migration via integrins. J Biol Chem; 286(47):40922-33. [CrossRef][PubMed]

[49] Wei C, Wang X, Chen M, Ouyang K, Song LS, Cheng H (2009). Calcium flickers steer cell migration. Nature; 457(7231):901-5. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

[50] Ibrahim MM, Dufresne A, El-Zawawy WK, Agblevor FA (2010). Banana fibers and microfibrils as lignocellulosic reinforcements in polymer composites. Carbohydr Polym; 81(4):811–819. [CrossRef]

[51] Elanthikkal S, Gopalakrishnapanicker U, Varghese S, Guthrie JT (2010). Cellulose microfibres produced from banana plant wastes: Isolation and characterization. Carbohydr Polym; 80(3):852–9. [CrossRef]

[52] Malinen MM, Kanninen LK, Corlu A, Isoniemi HM, Lou YR, Yliperttula ML, et al (2014). Differentiation of liver progenitor cell line to functional organotypic cultures in 3D nanofibrillar cellulose and hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogels. Biomaterials; 35(19):5110-21. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Rights & Permissions

Copyright: © 2021 Narayanan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.